As this resource continues to increase, please send us your reports, theses, papers, and any other useful resources so that they can be added to the site.

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Identification keys

Key to the dung beetles (Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) of the Iwokrama Forest v.1

Cole, C.J., Townsend, C.R., Reynolds, R.P., MacCulloch, R.D. & Lathrop, A. (2013) Amphibians and reptiles of Guyana, South America: illustrated keys, annotated species accounts, and a biogeographic synopsis. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 125, 317-578.

Kok, P.J.R., Kalamandeen, M. (2008) Introduction to the taxonomy of the amphibians of Kaieteur National Park, Guyana. ABC Taxa, Brussels.


Arets, E., Hout, P. & van der Zagt, R. (2003) Long-term changes in tropical tree diversity: Studies from the Guiana Shield, Africa, Borneo and Melanesia. Tropenbos Series (Netherlands) No. 22. pp95-115.

Ek, R.C. (1997) Botanical diversity in the tropical rain forest of Guyana. Tropenbos Guyana Series (Netherlands) No. 4.

Funk, V., Hollowell, P., Berry P., Kelloff, C. & Alexander S.N. (2007). Checklist of the Plants of the Guiana Shield (Venezuela: Amazonas, Bolivar, Delta Amacuro; Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana). Smithsonian Institution.

ter Steege, H. (2000) Plant diversity in Guyana: with recommendations for a national protected area strategy. Tropenbos Series. Tropenbos Foundation, Wageningen (Netherlands).

Watkins, G.G., Oxford, P. & Bish, R. (2010). Rupununi: Rediscovering a lost World. Earth in Focus.

Reports and RAPs

A Biological Assessment of the Kanuku Mountain Region of Southwestern Guyana.

A Biological Assessment of the Eastern Kanuku Mountains, Lower Kwitaro River, Guyana

A Rapid Biological Assessment of the Konashen Community Owned Conservation Area, Southern Guyana

Monitoring of vertebrates by Operation Wallacea in the Iwokrama and Surama Forests, Guyana

A biotic inventory of the vertebrates of the Surama Forest, Guyana

Braun, M.J., Finch, D.W., Robbins, M.B. & Schmidt, B.K. (2000) A field checklist of the birds of Guyana. Smithsonian Institution.

Grimes, A., Fraser, D. & Zweede, M. (2008) FAA 118/119 Biodiversity and tropical forest assessment Guyana. USAID

Pickles, R.S.A., McCann, N., & Holland, A. (2009). A biodiversity assessment of the Rewa head, Guyana. ZSL Conservation Report No. 10. The Zoological Society of London, London.

Jafferally D., Mistry J., Glastra R., Bovolo C. I. (2012) North Rupununi in 2030: Alternative Future Scenarios for the Development of the North Rupununi. Report on the workshop held 15-16th May 2012, Bina Hill Institute, Annai, Guyana. Published by COBRA Project.

Rodney, K. SFM in the Iwokrama Forest: Implementing a sustainable timber-harvesting regime in Guyana’s natural tropical rainforest. ITTO Tropical Forest Update 22, 17-19

Community Tourism Enterprise Development in the Rupununi: A Blueprint (2010) Conservation International


Bicknell, J. (2004) Patterns of fish diversity in the Rupununi savannahs, Guiana Shield. Undergraduate thesis. Liverpool Johns Moores University.

Cullen, K.H. (2005) Spatial Patterns in Guyana’s Wild Bird Trade. Masters thesis, The University of Texas at Austin

van Berlo, M. (2013) Phylogeography of the Neotropical tree species Eperua falcata (Fabaceae) across the Guianas. MSc thesis. Utretch University

Watson, C.L. (2011) Ecology and conservation of Arapaima in Guyana: Recovery of a giant fish in distress. PhD thesis. State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry.

Williams, A.U. (2006) Stakeholder vs. Shareholder: Options for Community–Based Tourism Partnerships within Protected Areas: Iwokrama and Fair View Village, Guyana. Masters thesis. Durrell Institute of Conservation and Ecology (DICE), University of Kent.

Scientific papers

Alofs, K.M., Liverpool, E.A., Taphorn, D.C., Bernard, C.R., López-Fernández, H. (2014) Mind the (information) gap: the importance of exploration and discovery for assessing conservation priorities for freshwater fish. Diversity and Distributions 20, 107-113.

Armbruster, J.W., Taphorn, D.C. (2011) A New Genus and Species of Weakly Armored Catfish from the Upper Mazaruni River, Guyana (Siluriformes: Loricariidae). Copeia, 46-52.

Baranow, P. & Szlachetko D.L. 2013: Sobralia pakaraimense (Orchidaceae), a new species from Guyana. — Ann. Bot. Fennici 50: 347–350.

Barnett, A., Shapley, R., Benjamin, P., Everton, H., McGarrell, M. (2002) Birds of the Potaro Plateau, with eight new species for Guyana. Cotinga. 18, 19-36.

Basset, Y., Novotny, V., Miller, S.E. & Pyle, R. (2000) Quantifying biodiversity: experience with parataxonomists and digital photography in Papur New Guinea and Guyana. BioScience, 50, 899-908.

Basset, Y., Charles, E., Hammond, D.S. & Brown, V.K. (2001) Short-term effects of canopy openness on insect herbivores in a rain forest in Guyana. Journal of Applied Ecology, 38, 1045-1058.

Bellfield, H., Sabogal, D., Goodman, L.,and Leggett, M. (2015) Case Study Report: Community-Based Monitoring Systems for REDD+ in Guyana. Forests. 6, 133-156

Berardi, A., Tschirhart, C., Mistry, J., Bignante, E., Haynes, L., Albert, G., Benjamin, R., Xavier R., Jafferally, D. (2013) From resilience to viability: a case study of indigenous communities of the North Rupununi, Guyana. EchoGeo. 24.

Bicknell, J.E., Collins, M.B., Pickles, R.S.A., McCann, N.P., Bernard, C.R., Fernandes, D.J., Miller, M.G.R., James, S.M., Williams, A.U., Struebig, M.J., Davies, Z.G., Smith, R.J. (2017) Designing protected area networks that translate international conservation commitments into national action. Biological Conservation. 214, 168-175.

Bicknell, J.E., Struebig, M.J., Davies, Z.G. (2015) Reconciling timber extraction with biodiversity conservation in tropical forests using reduced-impact logging. Journal of Applied Ecology. 52, 379-388.

Bicknell, J.E., Struebig, M.J., Edwards, D.P., Davies, Z.G. (2014) Improved timber harvest techniques maintain biodiversity in tropical forests. Current Biology. 24, 1119-1120.

Bicknell, J. & Peres, C. A. (2010) Vertebrate population responses to reduced-impact logging in a neotropical forest. Forest Ecology and Management. 259, 2267-2275.

Bicknell, J. & Chin C. (2007) Aquarium fisheries as a non-timber forest product: experiences from conservation through community development in North Rupununi District, Guyana. Conservation Evidence. 4: 94-98.

Bicknell, J. (2004) Sustainable, community-based aquarium fishes in the North Rupununi, Guyana. OFI Journal. 44: 22-24.

Bicknell, J., Patterson, M. & Tiwari, T. (2005) One year on… Community-based aquarium fisheries, Guyana. OFI Journal. 48: 26-28.

Bicknell, J.E., Phelps, S.P., Davies, R.G., Mann, D.J., Struebig, M.J. & Davies, Z.G. (2014) Dung beetles as indicators for rapid impact assessments: Evaluating best practice forestry in the neotropics. Ecological Indicators, 43, 154-161.

Borgerhoff Mulder, M., Schacht, R., Caro, T., Schacht, J & Caro, B. (2009) Knowledge and attitudes of children of the Rupununi: Implications for conservation in Guyana. Biological Conservation. 142: 879-887.

Bovolo C. I., Pereira R., Parkin G., Kilsby C., Wagner T. (2012) Fine-scale regional climate patterns in the Guianas, Tropical South America, based on Observations and Reanalysis Data. International Journal of Climatology. 32: 1665-1689.

Braun, M.J., Robbins, M.B., Milensky, C.M., O’Shea, B.J., Barber, B.R., Hinds, W. & Prince, W.S. (2003) New birds for Guyana from Mts Roraima and Ayanganna. Bull., British Ornithologists’ Club, 123, 24-33.

Buzas, M.A. & Hayek, L.A.C. (1996) Biodiversity resolution: an integrated approach. Biodiversity Letters, 3, 40-43.

Cannon, P.F. & Simmons, C.M. (2002) Diversity and host preference of leaf endophytic fungi in the Iwokrama Forest Researve, Guyana. Mycologia, 94, 210-220.

Cincotta, R.P., Wisnewski, J. & Engelman, R. (2000) Human population in the biodiversity hotspots. Nature, 404, 990-992.

Clare, E.L., Lim, B.K., Eger, M.D. & Hebert, P.D.N. (2007) DNA barcoding of Neotropical bats: species identification and discovery within Guyana. Molecular Ecology Notes, 7, 184-190.

Clements, T. (2010) Reduced Expectations: The political and institutional challenges of REDD+. Oryx, 44, 309-310.

Clifford, M.J. (2011)  Pork knocking in the land of many waters: Artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) in Guyana. Resources Policy. 36: 354-362.

Coddington, J.A., Agnarsson, I, Miller, J.A., Kunter, M. & Hormiga, G. (2009) Undersampling bias: the null hypothesis for singleton species in tropical arthropod surveys. Journal of Animal Ecology. 78, 573–584

de Souza, L.S., Armbruster, J.W., and  Werneke, D. C. (2012) The influence of the Rupununi portal on distribution of freshwater fish in the Rupununi district, Guyana. Cybium. 36, 31-43.

Donnelly, M.A., Chen, M.H. & Watkins, G.G. (2005) Sampling amphibians and reptiles in the Iwokrama Forest ecosystem. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 154, 55-69.

Eggleton, P., Davies, R., Kane, M.D., Kambhampti, S., 1999. A checklist of termites (Isoptera) from Kaieteur National Park, Guyana. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 101, 687-689.

Ernst, R., Konrad, T., Linsenmair, K. E. & Rodel, M. O. (2007) The impacts of selective logging on three sympatric species of Leptodactylus in a Central Guyana rainforest. Amphibia-Reptilia, 28, 51-64.

Ernst, R., Hölting, M., Rodney, K., Benn, V., Thomas-Caesar, R. & Wegmann, M. (2016) A frog’s eye view: logging roads buffer against further diversity loss. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 14, 353-355.

Ferraro, P.J. & Kiss, A. (2002) Direct payments to conserve biodiversity. Science, 298, 1718-1719.

Forget, P.M., Poncy, O., Thomas, R. S., Hammond, D. S. and Kenfack, D. (2009) A new species of Carapa (Meliaceae) from Central Guyana. Brittonia, 301-402.

Funk, V. A., Zermoglio, M. F. & Nasir, N. (1999) Testing the use of specimen collection data and GIS in biodiversity exploration and conservation decision making in Guyana. Biodiversity and Conservation, 8, 727-751.

Funk, V.A. & Richardson, K.S. (2001) Systematic data in biodiversity studies: use it or lose it. Systematic Biology, 51, 303-316.

Hayes, W,M., Fisher, J.C., Pierre, M.A., Bicknell, J.E., Davies, Z.G. (2019) Assessing the conservation value of different urban landcover types for bird communities in the Neotropics. Biotropica.

Horsley, T.W., Bicknell, J.E., Lim, B.K. & Ammerman, L.K. (2015) Seed dispersal by frugivorous bats in central Guyana and a description of previously unknown plant-animal interactions. Acta chiropterologica. 17, 331-336.

Johnson, M, & Gillman, M. (1995) Tree population studies in low-diversity forests, Guyana. I. Floristic composition and stand structure. Biodiversity and Conservation, 4, 339-362.

Kalamandeen, M. (2013) Indigenous Rights, Conservation, and Climate Change Strategies in Guyana. In Sodhi, N.S. Gibson, L., Raven, P.H. Conservation Biology, pp. 97-104. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Kelloff, C. L. Funk, V. (1998) Preliminary checklist of the plants of Kaieteur National Park, Guyana. Washington, DC, Biological Diversity of the Guianas Program, Smithsonian Institution.

Kelloff, C. L. (2003) The use of biodiversity data in developing Kaieteur National Park, Guyana for ecotourism and conservation. Contributions to the Study of Biological Diversity. 1, 1-44.

Kelloff, C.L. (2008) Structure and diversity of a riparian forest at Kaieteur National Park, Guyana. Journal of the botanical Research Institute of Texas. 2, 521-545.

Kelloff, C.L., Funk, V.A. (2004) Phytogeography of the Kaieteur Falls, Potaro Plateau, Guyana: Floral distributions and affinities. Journal of Biogeography. 31, 501-513.

Kok, P.J.R., Hölting, M., Ernst, R. (2013)  A third microendemic to the Iwokrama Mountains of central Guyana: a new “cryptic” species of Allobates Zimmerman and Zimmerman, 1988 (Anura: Aromobatidae). Organisms diversity and Evolution. 

Kok, P.J.R. (2005) A new genus and species of Gymnophthalmid lizard (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) from Kaieteur National Park, Guyana. Bulletin de l’Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique Biologie. 75, 35-45.

Kok, P.J.R. (2006). A new species of Hypsiboas (Amphibia: Anura: Hylidae) from Kaieteur National Park, eastern edge of the Pakaraima mountains, Guyana. Bulletin de l’Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique Biologie. 76, 191-200.

Kok, P.J.R. (2006). A new snake of the genus Atractus Wagler, 1828 (Reptilia: Squamata: Colubridae) from Kaieteur National Park, Guyana, northeastern South America. Zootaxa. 19-35.

Kok, P.J.R., Castroviejo-Fisher, S. (2008) Glassfrogs (Anura: Centrolenidae) of Kaieteur National Park, Guyana, with notes on the distribution and taxonomy of some species of the family in the Guiana Shield. Zootaxa. 25-53.

Kok, P.J.R., Sambhu, H., Roopsind, I., Lenglet, G.L., Bourne, G.R. (2006) A new species of Colostethus (Anura: Dendrobatidae) with maternal care from Kaieteur National Park, Guyana. Zootaxa. 35-61.

LaPolla J.S., Suman, S., Sosa-Calvo, J. & Schultz, T.R. (2007) Leaf litter ant diversity in Guyana. Biodiversity and Conservation, 16, 491-510.

Lehman, S. M. (2000) Primate community structure in Guyana: A biogeographic analysis. International Journal of Primatology, 21, 333-351.

Lehman, S. M. (2004) Biogeography of the primates of Guyana: Effects of habitat use and diet on geographic distribution. International Journal of Primatology, 25, 1225-1242.

Lehman, S.M., Prince, W. & Mayor, M. (2001) Variations in group size in white-faced sakis (Pichecia pithecia): Evidence for monogamy or seasonal congregations? Neotropical Primates, 9, 96-101.

Lehman, S. M. (2004) Distribution and diversity of primates in Guyana: Species-area relationships and riverine barriers. International Journal of Primatology, 25, 73-95.

Lehman, S.M., Sussman, R.W., Phillips-Conroy, J.E. & Prince, W. (2006) Ecological biogeography of primates in Guyana, In Primate biogeography: Progress and prospects (eds) S.M. Lehman, J.G. Fleagle. Springer, New York.

Levi, T., Silvius, K.M., Oliveira, L.F.B., Cummings, A.R. & Fragoso, J.M.V. (2013) Competition and Facilitation in the Capuchin–Squirrel Monkey Relationship. Biotropica, 45, 636-643.

Lim, B.K., & Engstrom, H.D. (2001) Bat community structure at Iwokrama Forest, Guyana. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 17, 647-665.

Lim, B.K., & Engstrom, H.D. (2001) Species diversity of bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in Iwokrama Forest, Guyana, and the Guianan subregion: implications for conservation. Biodiversity and Conservation, 10, 613-657.

Lim, B.K. & Engstrom, M.D. (2005) Mammals of Iwokrama Forest. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 154, 71-108.

Lim, B.K., Engstrom, M.D., Patton, J.C., & Bickham, J.W. (2008) Systematic review of small fruit-eating bats (Artibeus) from the Guianas, and a re-evaluation of A. glaucus bogotensis. Acta Chiropterologica, 10, 243-256.

Lim, B. K., Peterson, A. T. & Engstrom, M. D. (2002) Robustness of ecological niche modeling algorithms for mammals in Guyana. Biodiversity and Conservation, 11, 1237-1246.

Lopez-Fernandez, H., Taphorn, D.C., Liverpool, E.A. (2012) Phylogenetic diagnosis and expanded description of the genus Mazarunia Kullander, 1990 (Teleostei: Cichlidae) from the upper Mazaruni River, Guyana, with description of two new species. Neotropical Ichthyology 10, 465-486.

Lopez-Osorio, F. & Miranda-Esquivel, D.R. (2010) A phylogenetic approach to conserving Amazonian biodiversity. Conservation Biology, 24, 1359-1366.

Luzar, J.B., Silvius, K.M., Overman, H., Giery, S.T., Read, J.M. & Fragoso, J.M.V. (2011) Large-scale Environmental Monitoring by Indigenous Peoples. Bioscience, 61, 771-781.

Luzar, J.B., Silvius, K.M. & Fragoso, J.M.V. (2012) Church Affiliation and Meat Taboos in Indigenous Communities of Guyanese Amazonia. Human Ecology, 40, 833-845.

Luzar, J.B. & Fragoso, J.M.V. (2013) Shamanism, Christianity and Culture Change in Amazonia. Human Ecology, 41, 299-311.

Maldonado-Ocampo, J.A., López-Fernández, H., Taphorn, D.C., Bernard, C.R., Crampton, W.G.R., Lovejoy, N.R. (2014) Akawaio penak, a new genus and species of Neotropical electric fish (Gymnotiformes, Hypopomidae) endemic to the upper Mazaruni River in the Guiana Shield. Zoologica Scripta 43, 24-33.

Mistry, J., Berardi, A. & Simpson, M. (2008) Birds as indicators of wetland status and change in the North Rupununi, Guyana. Biodiversity and Conservation, 17, 2383-2409.

Mistry, J., Berardi, A., Simpson, M., Davis, O. & Haynes, L. (2010) Using a systems viability approach to evaluate integrated conservation and development projects: assessing the impact of the North Rupununi Adaptive Management Process, Guyana. Geographical Journal, 176, 241-252.

Mistry, J., Simpson, M., Berardi, A. & Sandy, Y. (2004) Exploring the links between natural resource use and biophysical status in the waterways of the North Rupununi, Guyana. Journal of Environmental Management, 72, 117-131.

Mittermeier, R.A., Myers, N., Thomsen, J.B., Da Bonseca, G.A.B. & Olivieri, S. (1998) Biodiversity hotspots and major tropical wilderness areas: approaches to setting conservation priorities. Conservation Biology, 12, 516-520.

Naka, L.N. (2010) Avian distribution patterns in the Guiana Shield: implications for the delimitation of Amazonian areas of endemism. Journal of Biogeography, 38, 681-696.

Netto-Ferreira, A.L., Lopez-Fernandez, H., Taphorn, D.C., Liverpool, E.A. (2013) New species of Lebiasina (Ostariophysi: Characiformes: Lebiasinidae) from the upper Mazaruni River drainage, Guyana. Zootaxa 3652, 562-568.

Osborne, T. & Kiker, C. (2005) Carbon offsets as an economic alternative to large-scale logging: a case study in Guyana. Ecological Economics, 52, 481-496.

Overman, H., Butt, N., Cummings, A. R., Luzar, J. B., & Fragoso, J. M. V. (2018). National REDD+ Implications for Tenured Indigenous Communities in Guyana, and Communities’ Impact on Forest Carbon Stocks. Forests, 9(5), 231. https://

Overman, H.; Cummings, A.R.; Luzar, J.B.; Fragoso, J.M.V. (2019) National REDD+ Outcompetes Gold and Logging: The Potential of Cleaning Profit Chains. World Development 118: 16-26.

Pickles, R.S.A., McCann, N.P. & Holland, A.P. (2011) Mammalian and avian diversity of the Rewa Head, Rupununi, Southern Guyana. Biota Neotropica 11.

Read, J. M., Fragoso, J. M., Silvius, K. M., Luzar, J., Overman, H., Cummings, A., Giery, S. T. & Flamarion de Oliveira, L. (2010) Space, Place, and Hunting Patterns among Indigenous Peoples of the Guyanese Rupununi Region. Journal of Latin American Geography, 9, 213-242.

Richardson, K.S. & Funk, V.A. (1999) An approach to designing a systematic protected area system in Guyana. Parks, 9, 7-16.

Ridgely, R.S., Agro, D., & Joseph, L. (2005) Birds of Iwokrama Forest. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 154, 109-121.

Rivett, S.L., Bicknell, J.E., Davies, Z.G. (2016) Effect of reduced-impact logging on seedling recruitment in a neotropical forest. Forest Ecology and Management. 367, 71-79.

Robbins, M.B., Braun, M.J. & Finch, D.W. (2003) Discovery of a population of the endangered red siskin (carduelis cucullata) in guyana. The Auk. 120, 291-298.

Robbins, M.B., Braun, M.J. & Finch, D.W. (2004) Avifauna of the Guyana Southern Rupununi, with comparisons to other savannas of northern South America. Ornitologia Neotropical, 15, 173-200.

Robbins, M.B., Braun, M.J., Milensky, C.M., Schmidt, B.K., Prince, W., Rice, N.H., Finch, D.W., O’Shea, B.J., 2007. Avifauna of the upper Essequibo River and Acary mountains, southern Guyana. Ornitologia Neotropical 18, 339-368.

Rull, V., Vegas-Vilarrubia, T., Nogue, S. & Huber, O. (2009) Conservation of the unique neotropical vascular flora of the Guayana highlands in the face of global warming. Conservation Biology, 23, 1323-1327.

Safont, E., Vegas-Vilarrubia, T. & Rull, V. (2012) Use of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) tools to set priorities and optimize strategies in biodiversity conservation. Biological Conservation, 149, 113-121.

Shaffer, C. A. (2006) A preliminary survey of the primates in the Upper Essequibo Conservation Concession, Guyana. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 163-163.

Sussman, R. W. & Phillipsconroy, J. E. (1995) A survey of the distribution and density of the primates of Guyana. International Journal of Primatology, 16, 761-791.

Taphorn, D.C., Lopez-Fernandez, H., Bernard, C.R. (2008) Apareiodon agmatos, a new species from the upper Mazaruni river, Guyana (Teleostei: Characiformes: Parodontidae). Zootaxa, 31-38.

Taphorn, D.C., Armbruster, J.W., Lopez-Fernandez, H., Bernard, C.R. (2010) Description of Neblinichthys brevibracchium and N. echinasus from the upper Mazaruni River, Guyana (Siluriformes: Loricariidae), and recognition of N. roraima and N. yaravi as distinct species. Neotropical Ichthyology 8, 615-624.

ter Steege, H., Welch, I. & Zagt, R. (2002) Long-term effect of timber harvesting in the Bartica Triangle, Central Guyana. Forest Ecology and Management, 170, 127-144.

ter Steege, H., Boot, R., Brouwer, L., Hammond, D., Vanderhout, P., Jetten, V. G., Khan, Z., Polak, A. M., Raaimakers, D. & Zagt, R. (1995) Basic and applied-research for sound rain-forest management in Guyana. Ecological Applications, 5, 904-910.

ter Steege, H. (1998) The use of forest inventory data for a National Protected Area Strategy in Guyana. Biodiversity and Conservation, 7, 1457-1483.

ter Steege, H., Jansen-Jacobs, M.J. & Datadin, V.K. (2000) Can botanical collections assist in a National Protected Area Strategy in Guyana. Biodiversity and Conservation, 9, 215-240.

ter Steege, H., Sabatier, D., Castellanos, H, van Andel, T., Duivenvoorden, J., de Oliveira, A.A., Ek, R., Lilwah, R., Maas, P. & Mori, S. (2000) An analysis of the floristic composition and diversity of Amazonian forests including those of the Guiana Shield.  Journal of Tropical Ecology, 16, 801-828.

ter Steege, H. & Hammond, D.S (2001) Character convergence, diversity and disturbance and tropical rain forest in Guyana. Ecology, 82, 3197-3212.

van Andel, T. (2001) Floristic composition and diversity of mixed primary and secondary forests in northwest Guyana. Biodiversity and Conservation, 10, 1645-1682.

van Andel, T. (2003) Floristic composition and diversity of three swamp forests in northwest Guyana. Plant Ecology, 167, 293-317.

Vanroosmalen, M. G. M., Mittermeier, R. A. & Fleagle, J. G. (1988) Diet of the northern bearded saki (Chiropotes-satanas-chiropotes) – A neotropical seed predator. American Journal of Primatology, 14, 11-35.

Vari, R.P. & Ferraris, C.J. (2013) Two New Species of the Catfish Genus Tatia (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae) from the Guiana Shield and a Reevaluation of the Limits of the Genus. Copeia, 3, 396-402

Vegas-Vilarrubia, T., Nogue, S. & Rull, V. (2012) Global warming, habitat shifts and potential refugia for biodiversity conservation in the neotropical Guayana Highlands. Biological Conservation 152, 159-168.

Watkins, G.G. (2005) The Iwokrama Centre and Forest: Introduction to Special Papers. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 154, 1-5.

Watkins, G., Saul, W., Holm, E., Watson, C., Arjoon, D. & Bicknell, J. (2005) The fish fauna of the Iwokrama Forest. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 154, 39-53.

Watson, L.C., Stewart, D.J. & Kretzer, A.M. (2016). Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of the Threatened Giant Arapaima in Southwestern Guyana: Implications for Their Conservation. Copeia, 104,864-872.

Watson, L.C., Stewart, D.J. & Teece, M.A. (2013) Trophic ecology of Arapaima in Guyana: giant omnivores in Neotropical floodplains. Neotropical Ichthyology, 11, 241-349.

Wilkinson, M., Kok, P.J.R., Ahmed, F., Gower, D.J. (2014) Caecilita Wake & Donnelly, 2010 (Amphibia: Gymnophiona) is not lungless: implications for taxonomy and for understanding the evolution of lunglessness. Zootaxa, 3779, 383-388